between General Manuel Noriega and the USA had been mounting for a while. Noriega,
the military dictator of Panama, had been indicted in the USA on drug trafficking
and money laundering charges.
When Guillermo Endara's democratic election as president of Panama was revoked
by Noriega, the George H Bush administration in the USA declared war with "Operation
this day 9,000 US troops joined the 12,000 US troops already in Panama. Some resistance
was met, but the US had overwhelmed the Panamanian army by 24th December. Endara
was installed as president by US forces.
gave himself up on 3rd January 1990.
was arrested by US Drug Enforcement Agency agents. He was charged, in 1992, on
eight counts of drug trafficking, racketeering, and money laundering. This was
the first time that a foreign leader had been charged in US courts. He was sentenced
to 40 years in jail.